What PFC Free Means And Why It Matters

By Mark Roberts

If you’ve ever worn a waterproof jacket or a pair of softshell walking trousers then you've probably already come into contact with PFCs – perhaps without even knowing it.

With an ominous three letter acronym, PFCs don't exactly sound like happy, friendly chemicals that are good for the planet. But what are they? Why are they used? And what's the deal with PFC-free outdoor gear?


  1. What are PFCs?
  2. Why are PFCs used in outdoor gear?
  3. Are PFCs harmful to the environment?
  4. What does PFC-Free mean?
  5. Why is Alpkit now PFC-free?
  6. Is PFC-free outdoor gear harder to look after?

A man scrambling in the Alpkit Definition PFC-free technical mountaineering waterproof

What Are PFCs?

PFC stands for ‘perfluorinated compound’. You may also see them referred to as ‘fluorocarbons’. PFCs are a wide range of man-made chemicals used in everything from non-stick coatings on pans to the foam in fire extinguishers.

Why Are PFCs Used In Outdoor Gear?

Some types of PFC are exceptionally good at repelling water, dirt and oil. As a result, they became widely used in durable water repellent (DWR) treatments for outdoor clothing and equipment. These particular PFCs lower the surface tension of a fabric enough for water to form in droplets (bead) on top rather than soaking in. DWR treatments are mostly used on waterproof fabrics to keep them breathable and stop them becoming saturated. But they are also used to treat everything from gloves to rucksacks to tents.

Two men navigating with a map and compass on Dartmoor in PFC-free waterproof jackets

Are PFCs Harmful To The Environment?

PFCs often leach into the water system during manufacturing, or directly from clothes, where they will then build up through the food chain. As a result, PFCs have been found in glaciers, on the icecaps and even in the stomachs of polar bears. There are multiple different types of PFCs and some are more toxic and harmful than others. However, all PFCs can break down into other substances which are harmful in high quantities.

Long-chain PFCs

Historically, the most commonly used PFCs in outdoor gear manufacture were 'C8' fluorocarbons (PFCs with 8 carbon atoms) like PFOA and PFOS. However, these chemicals were found to be highly ‘persistent’, building up in the environment without breaking down. They were also linked to causing a number of health problems in the human body so they were soon banned in Europe and around the world.

Short-chain PFCs

The outdoor industry shifted to using ‘shorter chain’ or ‘C6’ PFCs for DWR treatments as these were still water and oil repellent (if not quite as long-lasting) and thought to be less harmful. Although these C6 PFCs break down quicker and accumulate a lot slower, evidence suggests they can also build up in the environment with a potentially harmful effect.


A woman trying to read a map on Dartmoor, wearing a PFC free waterproof jacket
A woman unfolding a map in the rain on Dartmoor in a PFC free waterproof jacket
A woman using a Harvey Map on Dartmoor in strong winds, wearing a hillwalking waterproof jacket that's PFC free

What Does PFC-Free Mean?

If outdoor clothing and equipment is described as PFC-free, it usually means that it's been treated with a DWR that repels water without needing to use PFCs. These DWRs can be silicon-based, wax-based or even plant-based, so ‘PFC-free' is really just a catch-all term for a wide range of treatments.

Why Is Alpkit now PFC-free?

PFCs played an essential role in the development of modern outdoor clothing; we wouldn't have breathable waterproof jackets without them! However, we now know that their use has an unnecessary environmental cost. Recent breakthroughs in fabric technologies means that it's now perfectly possible to find effective water repellent treatments without the harmful environmental impact.

The Obstacles

Moving away from PFCs has been a long-term goal for Alpkit. However, it wasn't just as simple as slapping a PFC-free DWR on a jacket! The effectiveness of the treatment depends on the composition, structure and purpose of each individual fabric. Some fabrics are really hard to find an effective finish for without causing negative side effects. Pairing the right fabric with the right treatment, as well as all the testing and manufacturing, takes a lot of time.

First Steps In The Right Direction

We've been working on our own range of PFC-free clothing since Spring 2018. The first step was to stop using any DWR treatments on products where it wasn’t critical to their performance. Last year, we started using PFC-free DWRs across all of our insulated jackets and sleeping bags, as well as switching over to DownTek® PFC-Free Water Repellent Down.

The Last Piece Of The Jigsaw

The most challenging step was to find a treatment and fabric combination for our waterproofs that wouldn’t compromise their performance. We've even made garments where one half is PFC-free and the other is C8 to compare real world performance. After a lot of hard work, we’re very proud to say that all of our waterproofs will now be completely PFC-free. This means that we'll be one of the first major outdoor brands to be 100% PFC-free across our entire clothing range!

Water beading on the Alpkit Definition PFC-free technical mountaineering waterproof

Is PFC-Free Outdoor Gear Harder To Look After?

All DWR-treated outdoor gear requires regular washing and reproofing to repel water effectively. When dirt, oil and other contaminants get into treated fabrics, it stops water from beading on the outer surface effectively. As PFC-free DWRs aren’t oil or dirt repellent (unlike the old PFC-based treatments), you may find that you need to wash and reproof your equipment a little more frequently. Luckily, this is dead easy to do – if you look after your gear, it'll look after you! 

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